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Surface water evaporates at the rate of 1 metre per annum in parts of Tasmania. Further North on the Mainland extreme evaporation rates of 4 metres per annum have been recorded. When atmospheric moisture is 100% there is no evaporation from surface water. Shade from Bulrush + Papyrus + Strategic Trees can reduce evaporation. Wind on surface water increases evaporation.  Evaporation rates vary significantly according to seasonal conditions. Integration of grazing animals with surface water may be beneficial to surrounding vegetation and water quality. Grazing may also be destructive.

Fresh Water Flood Plain Mussels” ORDER at Bottom of Page + See Photo 5 for More Information  $88.00 Delivered QLD NSW VIC SA ACT Only 30 Mussels in Sealed Container ready for release into farm dams. 

PROLIFIC BREEDERS once established – Current Stocking Rate of 30 Mussels per Square Metre so we have more than 20,000 Mussels in 2 megalitre dam 

Plants that persist during extended dry periods + are capable of withstanding periodic grazing are selected and managed to prosper in this Adgingbong Paddock. Trees with ultra deep tap roots are strategically planted to access subsoil moisture from surface water storage.


Spoonbills are occasional visitors to shallow waterhole edges suitable for wading birds. Shallow waters are warmer and maintain small fish better over Winter.  Maximum water depth of 1.2 metres provides for Bulrush and Swamp Lilly + Lotus.      


Atolls provide occasional safe have for waterbirds. When waterhole is full these atolls are submerged with 300mm depth water. Better design is an island?  Above here is a  Foreshore Island that takes the first flush of runoff that then overflows into main waterhole. Foreshore Island acts as a “silt trap”. First flush of runoff is also loaded with nitrates that are absorbed into Island vegetation.


Papyrus has established from seed dropped by mother plant as waterhole recedes. Bulrush +Nardoo + Papyrus will colonise a new waterhole within 2-3 years under ideal conditions.


Waterhole overflows to fill this Billabong.


Freshwater Mussels will find refuge under these rocks used as steps into waters edge. Stacks of timber/branches on waters edge provide safe haven for crayfish and mussels. Main Waterhole only is stocked with Guppies + Crayfish + Mussels. Big fish like COD eat all of these little creatures. So numbers are abundant. Currently about 30 Fresh Water Mussels per square metre in silt at bottom of dam. That is about 20,000 mussels in a this 2 megalitre dam. They were introduced 10 years ago. The waterhole has gone dry 3 times in last 10 years. Mussels hibernate in mud as waters recede. They grow to 75 mm in width. Mussels are edible when cooked. Birds redistribute mussels as nutrient from the waterhole back onto land. This species of  Mussel is native to Murray Darling River System from Qld down to SA. Each mussel can live for 100 years.. SOLD in UNITS of 30 Packed in Silt in a Tubberware Container Post to Qld NSW Vic SA ONLY. $88 per 30 Mussels DELIVERED.  


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