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From Treeless Grassland to New Forest with Grazing Animals. This model is based on trees planted on a ten metre grid formation with 100 trees per hectare. Full size trees will eventually cast shade over the entire forest grassland for at least part of the day.  Trees are selected for ease of establishment combined with grazing compatibility.

PHOTO 4 Below = Potential Low Cost Method to reduce rainwater runoff without earthworks + machinery. As trees mature they too will reduce runoff. Cost effectiveness is determined by scale. This pattern may be applied to large scale operations at the lowest possible cost while providing the greatest economic return from timber + meat + milk. Nothing beats a standing body of grass to increase rainfall penetration – nothing except for trees and grazing management. Riplines were used here to plant these trees. In some cases waterlogging may be an unforeseen issue with riplines.  

(THIS is all New Material Based on Work Completed from 2017 onwards. OPT IN with CART Below to Receive UPDATES via email in PDF Format as they are compiled. This is a Free Customer Service) 

 Grazing animals are both benevolent and destructive. Establishing a New Forest with Grazing is navigated by (1) Tree Species Selection (2) Type of Grazing Animal (3) Stock Proof Tree Guards (4) Portable Hot Wires (5) Permanent Water for Livestock (6) Permanent Fencing (7) Water Source to Establish Trees (8) Tree Hole Preparation. (9) Long Term Grazing Management Strategy until all Trees are Stock Safe

TO RECIEVE Periodic “ALMANAC of Trees for Shaded Forest Grazing” via email in PDF Format Please Use Cart at Bottom of Page. This is a Free Customer Service. DUE to commence  SEPT 2023     

new forest grazing

PHOTO 1: This is Bambatsi Grass on Black Soil Alluvium. Previous dominant grass was Mitchell Blue Grass. Grazing management of previous decade has allowed Bambatsi and Desmanthus to dominate. Change of grazing management is now eliminating the Tall Tussock Bambatsi with Short Mitchell Grass returning to dominance. Bambatsi is controlled with more frequent grazing especially before seed set. DATE of PHOTO: 2017

new forest grazing

PHOTO 2: 100 Trees were planted on a 10 metre grid formation in March 2017 on good rain from Cyclone Debbie in April. Tree Guards have been removed with Hot Wires controlling grazing until trees are stock safe. Sheep have had access to entire paddock with tree guards only. Tree guards provided protection from cattle for first few years depending on tree species. Once Belah grew out of guard cattle were only allowed to graze with these hot wires. All guards have been removed by 2022 with sheep and small weaner cattle provided complete access. Full size cattle can now only enter with hot wires. Date of Photo: 2022


Belah is One of the Inland Casuarinas. Management for Belah with livestock requires a different strategy as it is palatable to livestock when young. Full size cattle can still snap a 4-5 year old Belah Whipstick from simply rubbing their head against it. Once Belah is 2-3 years old – provided you have abundant grasses – sheep will usually ignore a small tree – but not unknown for one sheep out of a mob to defoliate a small tree.  Silky Oak is palatable to sheep and cattle when young. With Belah and Silky Oak you can get them “stock safe” in this climate within 7 years (proven with weaner cattle) or you must decide to plant or not plant or adjust management to suit. The easiest stock safe Inland Forest is Bunya and Hoop – but on the other hand Bunya and Hoop require more care (water) to establish.   

THE MAGIC is, in worst case scenario both Silky Oak and Belah will regrow if eaten by livestock once they reach about 2 years of age. OPTIONS INCLUDE: Livestock Exclusion + Tree Guards + Hot Wires to control sheep and/or cattle until all trees are “stock safe”. The New Forest here is “stock safe” with sheep and 150 kg calves as of 2023.    

new forest

PHOTO 3: Sandstone Ridge with Iron Bark and Wilga at Janahn Forest Jimbour Australia. The best grass growth on light country relies upon trees. Some trees promote grass growth better than others. Some grasses are better with shade. Some are not.

new forest grazing

PHOTO 4: Six month old Small Breed Cattle now have unlimited access to this New Shaded Forest Grazing Paddock planted 6 years ago to Belah Bunya Hoop. Tall Grass + Tree Strips have been ungrazed (behind a hotwire) for last 2 years and are now visible in Google Earth. Grass Strips condensed atmospheric moisture and increase rainfall penetration during big rainfall events. Cattle will trample this body of standing grass down as mulch. Winter clover cannot grow when grass is too tall. Short grazed grass to left of strips has been trample planted with lucerne in April. To establish lucerne in Autumn you ideally need about 100mm of rain over 4 weeks. Date of Photo: June 2023 

new forest

PHOTO 5:  6 year old Hoop + Bunya Pine are now “stock safe” as cattle will not rub Hoop/Bunya Pine. Sheep will maybe nibble lower branches.

new forest

PHOTO 6: Silky Oak now 6 years old in Winter 23. Star Pickets stop rubbing from cattle.  Pruned above grazing height of sheep – now almost 3 metres tall.

gardeners and graziers

PHOTO 7: Close to perfect? Belah + Bunya + Saltbush + Cow for Milk.  Before you venture into the woods – work out what you need for 5 plus  years of working with living things to ensure they are strong enough to thrive. 


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