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Firestick Farming was once a global practice dating back more than one hundred thousand years that was able to transform forests into grasslands + gardens. New grasslands were able to attract grazing animals to supply protein and fats for early human settlements.

Meat + milk + egg production is today (in some locations almost totally) dependant upon grains originating from grasslands. The economy is changed by technology.

To understand the potential of livestock production for future economies (to eliminate fossil fuels + factory farming) you can rely upon new technologies + materials to manage open forest grasslands. The science remains the same – all that has changed is grazing animal management.             

Holistic Grazing Management (HGM) derived from the lifetime work of Allan Savory, is now the most widespread global method of modifying biological function to enhance and manage open forest woodlands and grasslands. 

Grazing and grassland production increases by periodically moving grazing animals to give grasslands time to regrow after grazing episodes. This increases plant and soil biomass that in turn grows more plant and soil biomass.  This pattern of nature can be applied to all types of Food Crop Production and is the foundation principle of Regenerative Agriculture. 

To start the process of grassland recovery, let pastures set seed after rain. It is essential to combine this objective with “correct weight stocking rates” to ensure sufficient time after grazing for pastures to recover. Variables include soil type + plant species + climate. Infrastructure may as simple as 4 paddocks with water.

You then learn how to “fine tune” management from observation. EG: Going into Winter you might graze early (without grass seed set) to provide an advantage for clovers by knocking back green grasses to let sunlight in and to conserve moisture. You then manage grazing to ensure clover seed set in Spring. Management is based on “the rain”.

It is impossible to predict rain – so learn and adapt methods suited to constant change in seasonal rain = which translates into: “Never Overstock if Possible”. If you are understocked with a run of good seasons; your pastures will respond faster and remain thicker on the next below average season. In our Cypress Pine Country, 100 mm of March rain now grows as much grass as 300 mm of Summer rain. Pastures respond faster to rain, including small 5 to 10 mm events.   

Fifteen years ago, one 50 acre paddock of Cypress Pine Country on “Janahn Forest” Jimbour Australia (600 mm rainfall zone) was capable of carrying one 500 kg cow and calf for 3 months over Winter. Now that same 50 acres recently carried 10,000 kg of cattle for 3 months over Winter into Spring as a result of above average seasonal rainfall and a 15 year change in grazing mangement.

The limiting factor of any unit of production is rain. If consumption exceeds production you will inevitably revert to degraded land or imported feedstock to keep animals alive.

Over population was not an issue for early forest dwelling people due to a lack of edible protein. Current global populations are maintained with (grasses selectively breed for) grain to feed pigs + chickens + cattle in contained production units.

All early permanent human settlements of Europe were dependent upon grazing animals. Domesticated mammals then provided milk for human consumption. Most significant time frame appears to be 7000 BC with the making across Europe of “bone spoons” to feed infants milk supplements.  Archeological evidence from Turkey indicates that the earliest human settlements constructed from stone were pastoral and not agricultural. Once permanent pastoral settlements were established domesticated animals were then integrated with new methods of cultivating grain.

With this new food from sheep + goats + cattle, mothers could wean babies 2-3 years earlier and so raise larger families. Inevitably fermented milk was involved. Later on, grain + butter + cheese would provide settlements with staples that could be stored long term.

So, it is today, that many of the worlds food security + energy + pollution problems may be solved with milking mammals.

(Never Blame the Cow for the World is Full of Mammals)

Reason being: there is no other quality human food that can be produced (so economically efficient) without machinery and fossil fuel energy other than cows milk on a global scale that relies solely upon rainfall in every climate zone from 200 mm annual rainfall upwards to the wet tropics. Cattle are lower cost to maintain verses sheep and goats. The are better adapted against predators. The are vegan friendly. (SEE NOTES Below) They provide meat. The cow is a genuine  essential friend of all modern civilizations.

Mammal manures are a source of biogas for heating and electricity + natural nitrogen rich fertilsers for essential garden food crops. Animal offal is transformed into eggs and fertiliser.

PLANT verses ANIMAL: The biological function of animals and plants is a finely balanced rivalry. Both are competing for resources. The biological function of plants and grazing animals can be modified by knowing what grazing animals will eat and what they will not eat.

Nature is both benevolent and destructive.

Learning how to modify nature to your own advantage is not an insignificant process. Do your own research. Learn how to grow plants with animals. 

Modern methods of land management are such a powerful force they will ultimately determine the future of all life on this planet for better or worse.  

Animals provide genuine nitrogen rich fertilisers for garden food crops. 70% of global food is reliant upon nitrogen fertiliser in the form of urea (that requires fossil fuels to extract nitrogen from the atmosphere). The entire global food production industry from farm production to distribution is fossil fuel dependent.  

These are not new methods of providing modern human settlements with protein + fats + carbohydrates. Technology and materials are new. Not much has changed in biological science recently.

The only way to grow complete human foods in all parts of Australia (on town scale) is with stored water and grazing animals. The only way to eliminate fossil fuel dependency and grow sufficient food to feed the worlds population is by integrating plant food production with grazing animals and (stored water). 

There is no evidence that consumption of animal fat leads to poor human health. There is evidence that animal fat helps keep arteries soft and subtle.    

There is ample evidence that over consumption of plant or/and animal fats (that convert to glucose in your blood) is toxic to humans. Same applies to all types of protein.   

Over consumption of carbohydrates (and fats) from plants is the dominant cause of type 2 diabetes + heart disease + obesity + multiple other chronic diseases.

All of our research work is based on modifying biological function to enhance naturally available resources. Our objective is to grow meat + milk without grain with essential garden food crops fertilised by animals utilising stored water.

Egg and pork production is possible without grain by providing animals with access to green pick + vegetables + fruit + animal offal. 

Milk production in arid zones or during drought may be maintained with key species like “Old Man Saltbush + Grazing Management to Suit Scale of Operation”.          

People can survive without grain and fruit, yet, humanity cannot persist without animals + vegetables. Species survive by adapting to change.

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Photo 1: A New Breed of Bovine – Small Meaty Milker. The yield from milk is greater than meat. Lucy (above) is 25% Brahman with Dairy and Lowline Content. Max. height is anticipated 1100mm at shoulder full size. Trees are selected according to ability to integrate with grazing animals. They are then pruned as they grow to be above grazing height.

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Photo 2: Bunya Pine is Stock Safe Sooner. Trees that grazing animals do not eat or that can be established above grazing height of sheep and small cattle are selected for Orchards and Shaded Forest Grazing Paddocks.

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gardeners and graziers

Photo 4: Within The Saltbush Paddock – first planted with Saltbush + Belah + Silky Oak + Bunya Pine in 2008. This is old cultivation on sandy loam – 20 years of cropping destroyed its soil structure. Potential highest yield (without cropping + fossil fuels) is milk from mammals on this type of country. Date of Photo: 2023

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Photo 5: Pitaya – Peruvian Apple Cactus – Cactus is the only Fruit that we can grow Dryland. It grows to 3 metres tall. It is also Stock Safe Sooner

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Photo 6: Within the Long Yard Garden – Sheep at Work pruning Hedges of Old Man Saltbush. These hedges will grow to 2.5 metres tall. They are aligned North South. Direct sunlight is then limited to about 4 hours per day – yet filtered and reflected sunlight is constant. This is now an almost perfect climate for Ginger + Capsicium + Tomato + Herbs + Tumeric + many more shade loving plants.

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Photo 7: Sheep contained overnight in Long Yard Garden used to “trample + grind ground covers”. They may typically spend 1 to 3 nights on each 20 metre square section of containment. Date of Photo: Sept. 2022

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Photo 8: Trampling effect of sheep. This is the residual from Winter 2022 Daikon Radish. It has just been seeded with Cow Pea Annual Smother Crop. Another section was seeded with Butterfly Pea Perennial Smother Crop and Green Pick for Chickens. Date of Photo: Sept. ’22

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Photo 9: Section of Long Yard Garden. Portable Sheep Yards and Chicken Panels control access of Sheep and Chickens. This section has just been “trample planted” to Cow Pea – used to smother Summer Grasses in preparation for Cool Season Food Crops. Date of Photo: Sept 2022.

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Photo 10: Crop of Leeks with Old Man Saltbush Hedge in background. Sheep do not eat Leeks. By knowing what animals will/will not eat + highly productive and efficient methods of production are created.

Nitrogen is readily available from animal manure and offal almost everywhere according to rainfall. Water is not readily available in most parts of Australia. However, it could be by way of priority by government planning and legislation to ensure isolated townships and communities to be self-sufficient for perishable vegetables and fruit from stored water.

RESULT: Substantial reduction in road transport costs and new local employment opportunities from stored water for local food crop production. You cannot reliably grow vegetables in 95% of Australia without stored water.

(NOTES for VEGANS: You need nutrients for all types of food crops – at some point in the food chain, manure from milking cows can be used to grow vegan friendly foods. If not you can always ask: What is the alternative? So if you have an interest in genuine carbon neutral food production – ASK: What is the alternative to animals as part of food production for complete human diets?)


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